History of Morocco
The Morocco - which was known as the other Maghreb countries, the Carthaginian and Roman dominations (Mauritania Tingitane) - is Islamized from the beginning of the eighth, but not without difficulty. Faced with the Arab conquest, large Berber tribes and preserve some cohesion while encouraging a political-religious fragmentation that benefit the Shiite dynasty Idrisids (end VIII-X), independent of the Abbasids. After resisting the implementation of the Fatimids, Morocco became the XI-XIII., The heart of the two major Spanish-Berber empires of the Almoravids (1056-1147) and Almohads (1130-1269). The Marinids succeed them until the middle of XV., Creating a brilliant civilization, but must cede power to Wattasids. In XVI., The Sadean (Arabs hasanides) chérifienne founded the first dynasty (1554-1659) who manages to curb Ottoman and Western ambitions. The opening to the Europeans however intensifies as their successors, the Alawites, facilitating colonization and leading French Protectorate (1912). Deprived of any real power by the general residence (including entrusted Lyautey, 1912-1925) Sultan ranks, from the induction of Muhammad V (1927) on the side of the nationalists led by the Istiqlal party and obtains the Morocco's independence in 1956. His son Hasan II (1961-1999) who chairs the modernization of a country that maintains close relations with the former colonial power and with the European Union, while preserving the character of almost absolute the monarchy as a timid moderate from 1990's liberalization, democratization pursued by Muhammad VI from 2000 to 2004
From the IX-VIII bc the Phoenicians settled counters on the Moroccan coast (Tingi [now Tangier] Liks or Lixos [Today Larache] Rusaddir aujourd'huiMelilla] ...) and introduce the use of iron and vine cultivation. From VI these counters came under the influence of Carthage.
From the III BC, the country appears populated by Moors in the north, south Gaetulians, ancestors of today's Berber. The kingdom of the Moors, or Mauritania, was annexed by the Romans in 40 AD, at 42, Claude is the Roman Morocco detaching the western half of Mauritania (Mauritania Tingitane) in the western part, his occupation then limited to the northern plains. The thrust of the mountain brings the Empire back to its border Loukkos (around 285), but in the country evacuated Roman civilization persists, and Christianity grew. The passage of the Vandals brought the fall of the imperial domination only Septem Fratres (Ceuta) is of Byzantine 534-709.
2. Berbers and Islam
Christians or pagans Judaised, Berbers are part of large families grouped into tribes: Masmudas, sedentary, occupying the Rif, the Atlantic plains, the High Atlas; Sanhadjas, camel in the Western Sahara or transhumance in Upper and Middle Atlas, the Zenatas (or Zenetes), nomads of eastern Morocco. Berbers use constantly to "Board" (djemaa), democratic character, and if it appears leaders, there is no long dynasty. They seem to have adopted Islam rather quickly. The Arab conquest of Musa ibn Nusayr (circa 708-711). The first converts after Tariq ibn Ziyad during the conquest of Spain behind (711), but the independent spirit of the Berbers manifested by the success of the kharidjite heresy, causing an uprising (739) against the Umayyads : the fate of the western Maghreb Arab political world, but without breaking with its culture. Fragmentation emerges hasanide dynastiealide (descendant of Ali by one of his two son Hasan) and the Shiite Idrisids, based in the north of Morocco by Idris I (788-791/792), but after Idris II (793 -828), which is the true capital of Fez, it loses all importance, the heirs of Idris II having shared the kingdom. A general in the service of the Fatimids of Kairouan invaded Morocco (917-918) and deposits the last Idrisids but Fatimid rule is not necessary in this country, which returns to the Sunnah and is no longer a world of Berber republics divided by the struggle between Sanhadjas and Zenatas.
3. The great Berber dynasties
Sanhadjas desert became the Brotherhood of the Almoravids, embark on the conquest of the Maghreb, first occupying the oasis (1053-1054) and southern Morocco (1056-1059). Their leader, Yusuf ibn Tachfin I, founder of Marrakech (1062), is the real creator of Morocco after taking Fez (1069), Ceuta (1083) and led to Algiers, he called for help by Muslim principalities of Andalusia (Taifa kingdoms) lers threatened by progress of the Reconquista and calls for holy war in Spain, which unites southern Morocco, creating the Almoravid Empire. Under his son, Ali ibn Yusuf (1106-1143), the Andalusian civilization extends Morocco. But from 1125, a revolt grows in Masmudas of Atlas, led by Muhammad ibn Tumart, founder of the Almohad doctrine. His disciple and successor, Abd al-Mumin (1130-1163), who proclaimed himself caliph, destroyed the power of the Almoravids (taken Fez  and Marrakech ), conquers Ifriqiya and Spain rallied. The domination of the Almohads (1147-1269) was strengthened during the reigns of Yusuf II (1163-1184), who bequeathed it to his son Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur (1184-1199) an empire at peace, but threatened by a double danger to the Christian north, Almoravid and Arab east, the first is removed momentarily Alarcos (1195), the second is the most dangerous and requires great expedition of 1187 (victory of Gafsa) and deportation of Arabs more restless. The Almohad civilization is marked by the rigor of the religious and moral doctrine, and the development of intellectual life (? Averroes). The Berber Morocco then peaked.
4. The Marinids
The prestige of the Almohads did not survive the defeat in Spain, Muhammad ibn Yaqub al-Nasir (1199-1213) in Las Navas de Tolosa (1212). While succession disputes favor the intervention of Ferdinand III of Castile in Morocco, the riders will Abd Allah al-Maymun to seize Marrakech (1230), the Banu Marin (Marinids) of Zenetes from the is conquered northern Morocco (1214-1244), Abu Yahya end the occupation (1244-1250) and there is the kingdom of Fez. The Castilians seized Seville in 1248 and the Almohads are eliminated in southern Morocco from 1258 to 1269 (making Marrakech, 1269) by Abu Yusuf Yaqub; becomes Sultan (1269-1286), but he and his successors dominate the plains. If the Moorish civilization is still alive (founded Fez Djedid [Fas al-Jadid], 1276; presence of the vizier Ibn Khaldun), the Marinids wear in vain expeditions in Spain, where they arise fighters of faith, they also depleted in the fight against the Abdalwadides Tlemcen and succession disputes. From 1420 to 1465, they survive under the tutelage of Wattasids also dynasty zénète right thing by seizing and replacing Fez in 1472.
5. The sharif dynasties
The Portuguese, who want to destroy the Muslim corsairs threatening their way to Guinea, occupy many ports (Ceuta, 1415; Arzila and Tangier, 1471 Santa Cruz de Aguer (Agadir), 1505; Safi, 1508; Mazagan, 1514); far step to the gold mines of Guinea, Atlantic Morocco becomes obligated on the Cape route to the Indian Ocean relay for their part, the Spanish take Melilla (1497), and the Peñón de Vélez of Gomera. Against the Europeans, marabouts stand to hold the holy war. It benefits a chérifienne dynasty, the Sadean, that remove the Wattasids South (1523) before final disposal (1554). Sharif Muhammad al-Shaykh occupies Aguer of Santa Cruz (1541), the Portuguese evacuated their positions, keeping only Tangier, Ceuta and Mazagan. Turks Algiers masters then appear more dangerous than the Christians, and Muhammad al-Shaykh combines the Spaniards, but they actually abandon their trade positions when Morocco Cadiz is moving, from 1550, to trade in America. However, the Ottomans, having murdered Muhammad al-Shaykh (1557), eventually renounce the conquest of Morocco. The Alcaçar Quivir-win (1578), where Sebastian, King of Portugal died, is a great prestige in Morocco, the Sadien al-Mansur (1578-1603) made the deal and Gourara Tuat (1581), sent an army conquer the Niger on the Songhai (1591) to better reflect the way to the gold, salt and slaves including trafficking strongly intensified.
On the death of Ahmad al-Mansur, the country is fragmented, and piracy of Sale, the hands of the Moors expelled from Spain, takes a great extend. Chérifienne new dynasty, the Alawites, part of Tafilalet, Morocco conquered the plains in the seventeenth s. Mulay Ismail (1672-1727), which has created an army of blacks (the Abid al-Bukhari), retrieves Tangier (1684) and Larache (1689) on the Christians, but can not fully submit the mountain. The eighteenth s. is characterized by long succession disputes, especially during the reign of Mulay Abd Allah (1729-1757), and the resumption of Mazagan (1769).
6. The opening of Morocco Europeans
At the end of the eighteenth s. and early nineteenth-s., Sultan is no longer disputed, but the army is weaker. If the outer peace is maintained and if Morocco is not attached at this time is that the greed of powers vanish. From the reign of Muhammad ibn Abd Allah (1757-1790), commercial treaties were signed with the European powers, and Mogador founded to focus on trade between Morocco and Europe (1765). Behind England, which dominates the Moroccan trade (treaties of 1760 and 1765) and prefers a weak state south of Gibraltar, the other European nations are accorded privileges: eight opening ports, extensive consular jurisdiction, protection granted or sold to Moroccans, tax exemptions, favorable tariffs. If Mulay Yazid (1790-1792) died in a revolt of the South caused by his exactions, and if Mulay Sulayman (1792-1822) faces Berber revolts in the Middle Atlas, their successors, Mulay Abd al-Rahman (1822 - 1859) and Muhammad ibn Abd al-Rahman (1859-1873), are engaged in wars against France (which requires the removal of the insurgent Morocco Abd el-Kader, and inglige the defeat of Isly 1844) and against Spain (1859-1860), revealing the weakness of the army. The heavy compensation paid to Spain in 1860 for the return of Tetouan (1862) aggravated the economic crisis, due to the privileges of the Europeans. Mulay Hasan (1873-1894) won the rally of the High Atlas promoting the domination of major tribal leaders, as if al-Madani Glawi (at the head of one of the families of bullies, the Glaoui), to which it gives the nomination. His son, Mulay Abd al-Aziz ibn al-Hasan (1900-1908), is unpopular because it is surrounded by Europeans revolt Bu Hmara, pretender to the throne, is the first of a long series of anti-European. movements
7. French colonization
Having already concluded a treaty with Morocco on the protection and consular jurisdiction (1767) specified by the Convention of Tangier (1863), France, which had to accept as many as they have powers and England treatment the most favored (Madrid Convention, 1880) nation, wants to extend its domination over Morocco, it is first to concede the right of police in the Algerian-Moroccan border (1901-1902). She lost interest in Italy (1900), Great Britain (1904), sharing a glimpse of Spain (1904), but faces opposition from Germany (Wilhelm II to Tangier, 1905), which supports the sultan. The Algeciras Conference (1906) puts virtually Morocco under international control. While Lyautey occupies Oujda (1907) and the massive Beni Snassen (December 1907-January 1908) in eastern Morocco, a French division occupies the area of Casablanca (1907). Mulay Hafiz (1908-1912) overthrows his brother (1908), but must use the French troops to release in Fez besieged by the tribes of the North (1911). After the incident of Agadir (1911), completed by the Franco-German agreement (4 November 1911), France has a free hand: they assign a northern zone (Rif) and a southern zone (Ifni, Tarfaya) to Spain (27 November 1912), after Hafiz Mulay imposed a protectorate treaty (Convention of Fez, March 30, 1912). The status of Tangier, under international supervision, shall be settled in 1923 by the Paris Convention.
Having held Taza (May) and Khénifra (June 1914), the resident general, Lyautey, managed to keep the interior of Morocco. The European occupation faces fierce opposition in the Rif, where Abd el-Krim inflicted a disaster to the Spanish Army (Anual, 1921) and succumbed in 1926 to the Spanish-French coalition (? Campaigns Rif ): the Berbers of the High Atlas to resist until 1933-1934 French forces. Despite Lyautey, the first Resident-General (1912-1925), the protectorate regime gives way to direct administration. The sultan has only religious authority, and his choice is made Paris: Mulay Hafiz, forced to abdicate (12 August 1912) was succeeded by his half-brother Mulay Yusuf (1912-1927). Official or private colonization attributed to Europeans million hectares (1/15 land use). Nationalist sentiment grows against foreign minority, feeling that come support Salafism (reformist Islamic movement born in the last third of the nineteenth s., And particularly active in Egypt) and pan-Arabism. The petty bourgeoisie, reached by the 1929 crisis that aggravates the imbalance of a non-tariff protection economy since the Algeciras Conference, anime this nationalist opposition communist party appears, a Moroccan Action Committee was formed (1934) to request the application of the Protectorate Treaty, which guarantees the sovereignty of Morocco, it is cut into two trends (1937), which form the Istiqlal with Allal al-Fasi (1944), and the Democratic Party of Independence, with al-Wazzani (1946), in addition, the autonomy promises Franco in Spanish Morocco, which originated the Spanish Civil War (July 1936), strengthen the opposition in the French zone. The crackdown on the leaders, but the defeat of 1940 further weakened the French position: Spain the opportunity to occupy Tangier (1940-1945), Moroccan parties to demand independence.
8. Towards Independence
Sultan Muhammad V (1927-1961) FD Roosevelt Anfa meeting (June 1943) and, in 1944, refused, for the first time, to ratify the decisions of the resident. As demanded independence (speech Tangier, April 1947), the French government appointed deemed residents for their energy, the general in June (1947-1951) and William (1951-1954). In 1951, Muhammad V must yield to a coup by the French authorities, based on the Sultan of Marrakech, Thami al-Hajj al-Glawi said the Glaoui (successor to his brother If Madani), and agrees to separate its employees Istiqlal.
On 20 August 1953, the French authorities submit the sultan, who was replaced by Muhammad Ibn Arafa. Massacres, bloody attacks the city, the Rif rises. The French government must allow the restoration of Mohammed V in August 1955.
Sultan gets the France (2 March 1956) and Spain (7 April 1956) recognized the independence of his country and that abolishing the international status of Tangier (29 October 1956). Morocco, a kingdom built (August 1957), called for the opening of negotiations on the border with Algeria and Mauritania, he claims (1958). Spain, which gives the area of Tarfaya (April 1958), refuses to abandon chaired, deCeuta and Melilla, Ifni and the Sahara. Inside, the Istiqlal, the majority party, cut into two (1958), a leftist group, the National Union of Popular Forces (UNFP), resulting from the break-up, said the excessive role played by the king in the government, but until his death (February 1961), Muhammad V keep intact prestige.